Radar and navigation




Gaspare Galati, Honorary professor

Gabriele Pavan Assistant professor

Mauro Leonardi Assistant professor

Sergio Pandiscia Tech. Lab.


Research Focus

The Radar Unit and Navigation is active for twenty years and has achieved important scientific results in the general field of theory and techniques radar, of signal processing, air traffic control and satellite navigation, publishing eight books of which two in the English language and more than two hundred and fifty works on international conferences proceedings with referees and international magazines and twenty patents.

Most Relevant Research  Achievements and Products

Control of airport traffic and related radar techniques and navigation

Areas of study: Radar primary and secondary ATC (Air Traffic Control) – SS R WAY S and processing of the signals (replicas/squitter) – weather channels in ATC radar – ATC systems. In particular, is to study the analysis of the signals “replication” SSR Mode S with use of real signals, recorded thanks to the collaboration with the University of Delft and the IRCTR.

 Airport systems and Traffic Control Surface

The line of research mainly refers to systems A-SMGCS (Advanced-Surface Movements Guidance and Control Systems) that enable surveillance, monitoring (with analysis of possible conflicts), the guide and the planning of airport traffic. Areas of investigation:

Checking the detection threshold in surface radar (SMR)

Extraction of plot in surface radar

Tracking (TWS) in surface radar

Imaging in radar of surface with high resolution


Multifunction Phased Array Radar

In recent years in research activities and to draft new radar systems is always more diffused the idea to develop a system that can integrate different functions (e.g. ATC surveillance and weather) and replace the radar, currently operating, which in most cases have reached the end of their life cycle. For these new systems has been introduced the term MPAR (Multifunction Phased Array Radar).

The MPAR are, therefore, radar to phased array, i.e. evoke the volume of electronically coverage (unlike the radar to mechanical rotation) and can perform different functions. The importance and potential of the MPAR can be understood by comparing some numbers: in the United States currently operative are seven distinct networks of radar, used to provide information about the weather, air traffic control and the defense of the territory, for a total of 510 radar. A network of MPAR allows to reduce this number to about 334 and have only one type of radar.


The Processing of Signals: Detection and Estimate

The processing of the signals is studied in the context of detection systems and recognition (radar primary and secondary ATC, radar image location of radio sources and transponders with triangulation and multilaterazione). The lines of research include:

The joint estimate of the frequency and time of arrival

 Estimate of the orientation (pointing angle) of a radar target extended from its image obtained with high-resolution radar

Estimating the position of an issuer radioelectric with passive systems and associated algorithms for multilaterazione


Noise Radar

The Noise Radar Technology is a radar technology which employs in transmission a waveform noisy (noise wave) continuous or pulsed. In reception, the processing excellent echoes for the estimate of the distance and the speed of the target is obtained by means of the receiver to the correlation between the signal transmitted and the signal received.


Air Navigation and Satellite Navigation Systems

I Satellite navigation systems to be used in applications that are critical for the purposes of safety critical) such as air traffic control and airport have need of the function of integrity with which the user is warned in good time whether the datum of navigation goes out of tolerance. This feature involves an adequate infrastructure and a statistical analysis of the data; the situation is different for the GPS, which does not provide for the integrity, and Galileo. System Architecture, algorithms and evaluation in various applications are the subject of research. The topics of study include:

GPS and Galileo systems: Integrity Monitoring and Techniques of augmentation

Satellite Navigation Applications to airport traffic

Satellite Navigation Applications to the Landing

Statistical analysis of GPS data.




The Company NAVICO RBU within the scope of common interest, both scientific and industrial purposes, to analyze the effects of mutual interference between maritime radar operating in the frequency band between 9.3 GHz to 9.5 GHz, with particular attention to the interference of the new radar in the solid state on traditional radar magnetrons, it is appropriate to add an experimental phase to the activity of analytical type statistical/course at the University.


Selected Publications


G Galati, G., & Pavan, G. (2019). On Phase Folding in Random Phase/Frequency Modulation for Noise Radar. IEEE GEOSCIENCE AND REMOTE SENSING LETTERS, 1-3.

 Galati, G., & Pavan, G. (2018). High Resolution Measurements and Characterization of Urban, Suburban and Country Clutter at X-Band and Related Radar Calibration. In 2018 9th International Conference on Ultrawideband and Ultrashort Impulse Signals (UWBUSIS) (pp.20-27). IEEE.

Galati, G., & Pavan, G. (2018). Radar environment experimental analysis for optimal siting. In 19th International Radar Symposium (IRS) 2018 (pp.1-9). IEEE.

Pavan, G., & Galati, G. (2018). Radar environment characterization by signal processing techniques. In IEEE International Symposium on Signal Processing and Information Technology (ISSPIT) 2017. IEEE.

Galati, G., & Pavan, G. (2018). Waveform Design and Related Processing for Multiple Target Detection and Resolution. In Graham Weinberg (a cura di), Topics in Radar Signal Processing (pp. 3-24). IntechOpen.

Galati, G., & Pavan, G. (2018). Generation of Land-Clutter Maps for Cognitive Radar Technology. In Trends and Advances in Information Systems and Technologies, Volume 2 (pp.1463-1470). Springer.

Leonardi, M. (2018). Aspetti di sicurezza nell’utilizzo dei sistemi di navigazione. GEOMEDIA, 1(5), 42-45.

Leonardi, M., & Di Fausto, D.d. (2018). Secondary surveillance radar transponders classification by RF fingerprinting. In Proceedings International Radar Symposium (pp.1-10). IEEE.

 Galati, G., Pavan, G., De Palo, F., & Ragonesi, G. (2017). A Statistical Model for Vessel-to-Vessel Distances to Evaluate Radar Interference. JOURNAL OF NAVIGATION, 1-19.

Galati, G., Pavan, G., & De Palo, F. (2017). Chirp Signals and Noisy Waveforms for Solid-State Surveillance Radars. AEROSPACE, 4(1).

Galati, G., Pavan, G., De Palo, F., Latini, D., Carbone, F., Del Frate, F., et al. (2017). Visibility trials of unmanned aerial vehicles (Drones) by commercial X-band radar in sub-urban environment. In AEIT International Annual Conference 2017 (pp.1-6).

Leonardi, M., Piracci, E., & Galati, G. (2017). ADS-B jamming mitigation: A solution based on a multichannel receiver. IEEE AEROSPACE AND ELECTRONIC SYSTEMS MAGAZINE, 32(11), 44-51.

Galati, G., Carta, P., Leonardi, M., Madia, F., Stallone, R., & Franco, S. (2017). The d-Radar: a bistatic system based on conformal arrays. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MICROWAVE AND WIRELESS TECHNOLOGIES, 9(3), 551-565.

Leonardi, M., Di Gregorio, L., & Di Fausto, D. (2017). Air Traffic Security: Aircraft Classification Using ADS-B Message’s Phase-Pattern. AEROSPACE, 4(4), 51.

Galati, G., Pavan, G., De Palo, F., & Stove, A. (2016). Potential applications of noise radar technology and related waveform diversity. In Radar Symposium (IRS), 2016 17th International. IEEE.

Stove, A., Galati, G., Pavan, G., De Palo, F., Lukin, K., Kulpa, K., et al. (2016). The NATO SET-184 noise radar trials. In 17th International Radar Symposium (IRS), 2016. IEEE.

Galati, G., Pavan, G., De Palo, F., & Ragonesi, G. (2016). Maritime Traffic Models for Vessel-to-Vessel Distances. In Proceedings of the International Conference on Vehicle Technology and Intelligent Transport Systems (pp.160-167).

Galati, G., & Pavan, G. (2016). Sistemi di controllo e gestione del traffico marittimo. AEIT, 103(4/5 Aprile/Maggio), 48-59.

Galati, G., & Pavan, G. (2016). Teoria dei Fenomeni Aleatori – Esercizi- Indice Analitico – Errata Corrige – Tabelle. Roma: TEXMAT.

Galati, G., Pavan, G., & De Palo, F. (2016). Compatibility problems related with pulse-compression, solid-state marine radars. IET RADAR, SONAR & NAVIGATION, 1-7.

Gaspare Galati. 100 Years of Radar. Springer International Publishing Switzerland: Springer International Publishing,

ISBN: 978-3-319-00583-6,

doi: 10.1007/978-3-319-00584-3.


Gaspare Galati. CENT’ANNI DI RADAR – ricerca, sviluppi, persone, eventi 

ARACNE editrice S.r.l.

ISBN 978-88-548-5688-2.