Gaspare Galati, Honorary professor:

Gabriele Pavan Assistant professor:

Mauro Leonardi Assistant professor

Sergio Pandiscia Tech. Lab.

(last update 22/11/2022)

Research Focus

The Radar Unit and Navigation is active for twenty years and has achieved important scientific results in the general field of theory and techniques radar, signal processing, air traffic control, and satellite navigation, publishing eight books, of which two in the English language, and more than two hundred and fifty works on international conferences proceedings with referees and international magazines and twenty patents.

Most Relevant Research Achievements and Products

Control of airport traffic and related radar techniques and navigation

Areas of study: primary and secondary radar (SSR Mode S) for Air Traffic Control (ATC) and processing of the signals (replicas/squitter) – weather channels in ATC radar. In particular, the study analyses the signals of “replication” SSR Mode S with the use of real signals, recorded thanks to the collaboration with the University of Delft and the IRCTR.

 Airport Systems and Traffic Control Surface

The line of research mainly refers to the Advanced-Surface Movements Guidance and Control Systems (A-SMGCS) that enable surveillance, monitoring (with analysis of possible conflicts), the guide and the planning of airport traffic. Areas of investigation are:

Checking the detection threshold in surface radar (SMR)

Extraction of plot in surface radar

Tracking (TWS) in surface radar

Imaging in the radar of surface with high resolution

 Multifunction Phased Array Radar

In recent years, the research is oriented to develop radar systems that can integrate different functions (e.g. ATC surveillance and weather) and replace the currently operating radars, which in most cases have reached the end of their life cycle. For these new systems, the term MPAR (Multifunction Phased Array Radar) has been introduced.

The MPAR are phased array radar, i.e. evoke the volume of electronically coverage (unlike the radar to mechanical rotation) and can perform different functions. The importance and potential of the MPAR can be understood by comparing some numbers: in the United States currently operative are seven distinct networks of radar, used to provide information about the weather, air traffic control and the defence of the territory, for a total of 510 radar. A network of MPAR allows to reduce this number to about 334 and have only one type of radar.

The Processing of Signals: Detection and Estimate

The processing of the signals is studied in the context of detection systems and recognition (primary and secondary ATC radars, image radar location of radio sources and transponders with triangulation and multilateration). The lines of research include:

The joint estimate of the frequency and time of arrival.

Estimate of the orientation (pointing angle) of a radar target extended from its image obtained with high-resolution radar.

Estimating the position of an issuer radioelectric with passive systems and associated algorithms for multilateration.

Noise Radar

The Noise Radar Technology is a radar technology which employs in transmission a waveform noisy (noise wave) continuous or pulsed. In reception, the processing excellent echoes for the estimate of the distance and the speed of the target is obtained by means of the receiver to the correlation between the transmitted signal and the received signal.

Air Navigation and Satellite Navigation Systems

Satellite navigation systems, used in applications that are critical for safety, have need of the function of integrity with which the user is warned in good time whether the datum of navigation goes out of tolerance. This feature involves an adequate infrastructure and a statistical analysis of the data. The system architecture, algorithms and evaluation in various applications are the subject of research. The topics of study include:

GPS and Galileo systems: Integrity Monitoring and Techniques of augmentation.

Satellite Navigation Applications to airport traffic.

Satellite Navigation Applications to the Landing.

Statistical analysis of GPS data.


Collaboration with the Company NAVICO RBU, within the scope of common interest, both scientific and industrial purposes, to analyze the effects of mutual interference between maritime radar operating in the frequency band between 9.3 GHz to 9.5 GHz, with particular attention to the interference of the new radar in the solid state on traditional radar magnetrons. In this frame, it is appropriate to add an experimental phase to the activity of analytical and statistical at the University.


Galati G. 100 Years of Radar. Springer International Publishing https://link.springer.com/book/10.1007/978-3-319-00584-3. ISBN: 978-3-319-00583-6. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-00584-3.

Galati G. Cent’anni di Radar (Complementi di CENT’ANNI DI RADAR )– ricerca, sviluppi, persone, eventi. ARACNE Editrice S.r.l. – ISBN 978-88-548-5688-2.

Selected Publications from 2016

Galati G., Pavan G., Wasserzier C. Interception of Continuous-Emission Noise Radars Transmitting Different Waveform Configurations, 2022 23rd International Radar Symposium (IRS) 12-14 September 2022, Gdansk, Poland. DOI: https://doi.org/10.23919/IRS54158.2022.9904981.

Galati G., Pavan G. Measuring the Anti-Intercept features of Noise Radar waveforms: the way ahead, 2022 IEEE 9th International Workshop on Metrology for AeroSpace (MetroAeroSpace), 27-29 June 2022, Pisa, Italy. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1109/MetroAeroSpace54187.2022.9856112.

Galati G., Pavan G., Wasserzier C. Signal design and processing for noise radar. In EURASIP JOURNAL ON ADVANCES IN SIGNAL PROCESSING (1), 2022. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/s13634-022-00884-1.

Galati G., Pavan G. Observation and Measurements in a Sub-urban Area using two Commercial X-band Marine Radars. In Proceedings of AEIT International Annual Conference, 2021. DOI: https://doi.org/10.23919/AEIT53387.2021.9626906.

Galati G., Pavan G., Savci K., Wasserzier C. Noise radar technology: Waveforms design and field trials. In MDPI Sensors vol. 21 (9), 2021. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/s21093216.

Savci K. Galati G., Pavan G. Low-PAPR waveforms with shaped spectrum for enhanced low probability of intercept noise radars. In MDPI Remote Sensing vol. 13 (12), 2021. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/rs13122372.

De Palo F., Galati G., Pavan G., Wasserzier C., Savci K. Introduction to Noise Radar and its Waveforms. In MDPI Sensors vol. 20 (18), 2020. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/s20185187.

Savci K., Stove A., De Palo F., Erdogan A., Galati G., Lukin K., Lukin S., Marques P., Pavan G., Wassserzier C. Noise Radar -Overview and Recent Developments. In IEEE Aerospace and Electronic Systems Magazine vol. 35 (9), 2020, pp. 8 – 20. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1109/MAES.2020.2990591.

Galati G., Pavan G., Wasserzier C. Continuous-Emission Noise Radar: Design Criteria and Waveforms. In Proceedings of IEEE 7th International Workshop on Metrology for Aerospace, 2020. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1109/MetroAeroSpace48742.2020.9160345.

Galati G., Pavan G. Calibration of an X-band commercial radar and reflectivity measurements in suburban areas. In IEEE Aerospace and Electronic Systems Magazine vol. 34 (2), pp. 4 – 11, 2019. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1109/MAES.2019.180048 .

Galati G., Pavan G., Wasserzier C. Optimal Processing in Noise Radar: Implementation Problems. In Proceedings of 2019 Signal Processing Symposium (SPSympo). pp. 45 – 50. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1109/SPS.2019.8882098.

Galati G., Pavan G., Wasserzier C. Environmental Effects on Ground-based Radar Measurements. In Proceedings of IEEE International Workshop on Metrology for Aerospace, pp. 349 – 354, 2019. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1109/MetroAeroSpace.2019.8869563.

Leonardi M., Galati G., Pavan G., Wasserzier C., De Palo F. Towards next generation of radar systems: Noise Radar Technology and Conformal Arrays for Multifunction Digital Radar. In Radar Evolution: CNIT – The Italian Academic Contribution, 2019 – ISBN: 978-8894982176.

Galati G., Pavan G. On Phase Folding in Random Phase/Frequency Modulation for Noise Radar. IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters, Vol. 16, Issue 6, 2019, pp. 884 – 886. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1109/LGRS.2018.2886065.

 Galati G., Pavan G. High Resolution Measurements and Characterization of Urban, Suburban and Country Clutter at X-Band and Related Radar Calibration. In Proceedings of IEEE 9th International Conference on Ultrawideband and Ultrashort Impulse Signals (UWBUSIS), pp. 20 – 27, 2019. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1109/UWBUSIS.2018.8519964.

Galati, G., & Pavan, G. Radar environment experimental analysis for optimal siting. In Proceedings of 19th International Radar Symposium (IRS), 2018. DOI: https://doi.org/10.23919/IRS.2018.8448076.

Galati G., Pavan G. Waveform Design and Related Processing for Multiple Target Detection and Resolution. In IntechOpen Topics in Radar Signal Processing (Graham Weinberg Editor), pp. 3-24, 2018. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5772/intechopen.71549.

Galati G., Pavan G. Generation of Land-Clutter Maps for Cognitive Radar Technology. In Trends and Advances in Information Systems and Technologies, Volume 2, pp. 1463 – 1470, 2018. Springer, https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-319-77712-2_141.

Leonardi M. Aspetti di sicurezza nell’utilizzo dei sistemi di navigazione, 2018. GEOMEDIA, 1(5), 42-45.

Leonardi M., Di Fausto Secondary surveillance radar transponders classification by RF fingerprinting. In Proceedings International Radar Symposium, pp. 1-10, 2018. DOI: https://doi.org/10.23919/IRS.2018.8448244.

 Pavan G., Galati G. Radar environment characterization by signal processing techniques. In Proceedings of IEEE International Symposium on Signal Processing and Information Technology (ISSPIT), 2017. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1109/ISSPIT.2017.8388313.

Galati G., Pavan G., De Palo F., Ragonesi G. A Statistical Model for Vessel-to-Vessel Distances to Evaluate Radar Interference. The Journal of Navigation, Volume 70, Issue 5, September 2017, pp. 1098 – 1116. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/S0373463317000169.

Galati G., Pavan G., De Palo F. Chirp Signals and Noisy Waveforms for Solid-State Surveillance Radars. In MDPI Aerospace, 4(1), 15, 2017. DOI https://doi.org/10.3390/aerospace4010015.

Galati G., Pavan G., De Palo F., Latini D., Carbone F., Del Frate F., et al. Visibility trials of unmanned aerial vehicles (Drones) by commercial X-band radar in sub-urban environment. In AEIT International Annual Conference, 2017. DOI: https://doi.org/10.23919/AEIT.2017.8240554.

Leonardi M., Piracci E., Galati, G. ADS-B jamming mitigation: A solution based on a multichannel receiver. In IEEE Aerospace and Electronic Systems Magazine, Vol. 32, Issue 11, 2017. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1109/MAES.2017.160276.

Galati G., Carta P., Leonardi M., Madia F., Stallone R., Franco, S. The d-Radar: a bistatic system based on conformal arrays. In International Journal of Microwave and Wireless Technologies, Volume 9, Issue 3, 2017, pp. 551 – 565. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/S175907871600026X.

Leonardi M., Di Gregorio L., Di Fausto D. Air Traffic Security: Aircraft Classification Using ADS-B Message’s Phase-Pattern. AEROSPACE, 4(4), 51, 2017. https://doi.org/10.3390/aerospace4040051.

Galati G., Pavan G., De Palo F., Stove A. Potential applications of noise radar technology and related waveform diversity. In Proceedings of 17th International Radar Symposium (IRS), 2016. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1109/IRS.2016.7497329.

Stove A., Galati G., Pavan G., De Palo F., Lukin K., Kulpa K., et al. The NATO SET-184 noise radar trials. In Proceedings of 17th International Radar Symposium (IRS), 2016. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1109/IRS.2016.7497327.

Galati G., Pavan G., De Palo F., Ragonesi G. Maritime Traffic Models for Vessel-to-Vessel Distances. In Proceedings of the International Conference on Vehicle Technology and Intelligent Transport Systems, pp. 160 – 167, 2016. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5220/0005856301600167.

Galati G., Pavan G. Sistemi di controllo e gestione del traffico marittimo. Rivista ufficiale dell’AEIT, Volume 103, N. 4/5 aprile/maggio 2016, pp. 48 – 59. ISSN 1825-828X.

Galati G., Pavan G., De Palo F. Compatibility problems related with pulse-compression, solid-state marine radars. In IET Radar, Sonar & Navigation 10(4), 2016. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1049/iet-rsn.2015.0400.